Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine PDF

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine PDF.

This book was written to be used as an applied thermoscience textbook in a one-semester. college-level, undergraduate engineering course on internal combustion engines. It provides the material needed for a basic understanding of the operation of internal combustion engines. Students are assumed to have knowledge of fundamental thermodynamics, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics as a prerequisite to get maximum benefit from the text. This book can also be used for self-study and/or as a reference book in the field of engines.

Contents include the fundamentals of most types of internal combustion engines, with a major emphasis on reciprocating engines. Both spark ignition and compression ignition engines are covered, as are those operating on four-stroke and two-stroke cycles, and ranging in size from small model airplane engines to the largest stationary engines. Rocket engines and jet engines are not included. Because of the large number of engines that are used in automobiles and other vehicles, a major emphasis is placed on these.

The book is divided into eleven chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 give an introduction. terminology, definitions, and basic operating characteristics. This is followed in Chapter 3 with a detailed analysis of basic engine cycles. Chapter 4 reviews fundamental thermochemistry as applied to engine operation and engine fuels. Chapters 5 through 9 follow the air-fuel charge as it passes sequentially through an engine, including intake, motion within a cylinder, combustion, exhaust, and emissions. Engine heat transfer, friction, and lubrication are covered in Chapters 10 and 11. Each chapter includes solved example problems and historical notes followed by a set of unsolved review problems. Also included at the end of each chapter are open-ended problems that require limited design application. This is in keeping with the modem engineering education trend of emphasizing design. These design problems can be used as a minor weekly exercise or as a major group project. Included in the Appendix is a table of solutions to selected review problems.

Fueled by intensive commercial competition and stricter government regulations on emissions and safety, the field of engine technology is forever changing. It is difficult to stay knowledgeable of all advancements in engine design, materials, controls. and fuel development that are experienced at an ever-increasing rate. As the outline for this text evolved over the past few years, continuous changes were required as new developments occurred. Those advancements, which are covered in this book, include Miller cycle, lean bum engines, two-stroke cycle automobile engines, variable valve timing, and thermal storage. Advancements and technological changes will continue to occur, and periodic updating of this text will be required.

Information in this book represents an accumulation of general material collected by the author over a period of years while teaching courses and working in research and development in the field of internal combustion engines at the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Wisconsin-Platteville. During this time, information has been collected from many sources: conferences, newspapers, personal communication, books, technical periodicals, research, product literature, television, etc. This information became the basis for the outline and notes used in the teaching of a class about internal combustion engines. These class notes, in turn, have evolved into the general outline for this textbook. A list of references from the technical literature from which specific information for this book was taken is included in the Appendix in the back of the book. This list will be referred to at various points throughout the text. A reference number in brackets will refer to that numbered reference in the Appendix list.

Several references were of special importance in the development of these notes and are suggested for additional reading and more in-depth study. For keeping up with information about the latest research and development in automobile and internal combustion engine technology at about the right technical level, publications by SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) are highly recommended; Reference [11] is particularly appropriate for this. For general information about most engine subjects. [40.58.100.116] are recommended. On certain subjects, some of these go into much greater depth than what is manageable in a one-semester course. Some of the information is slightly out of date but. overall, these are very informative references. For historical information about engines and automobiles in general. [29. 45. 97. 102] are suggested. General data, formulas, and principles of engineering thermodynamics and heat transfer are used at various places throughout this text. Most undergraduate textbooks on these subjects would supply the needed information. References [63] and [90] were used by the author.

Keeping with the trend of the world. SI units are used throughout the book, often supplemented with English units. Most research and development of engines is done using SI units, and this is found in the technical literature. Howrever. in the non-technical consumer market, English units are still common, especially with automobiles. Horsepower, miles per gallon, and cubic inch displacement are some of the English terminology still used. Some example problems and some review problems are done with English units. A conversion table of SI and English units of common parameters used in engine work is induded in the Appendix at the back of the book.

I would like to express my gratitude to the many people who have influenced me and helped in the writing of this book. First I thank Dorothy with love for always being there, along with John, Tim. and Becky. I thank my Mechanical Engineering Department colleagues Ross Fiedler and Jerry Lolwing for their assistance on many occasions. I thank engineering students Pat Horihan and Jason Marcott for many of the computer drawings that appear in the book. I thank the people who reviewed the original book manuscript and offered helpful suggestions for additions and improvements. Although I have never met them. I am indebted to authors J. B. Heywood. C. R. Ferguson, E. F. Obert. and R. Stone. The books these men have written about internal combustion engines have certainly influenced the content of this textbook. I thank my father, who many years ago introduced me to the field of automobiles and generated a lifelong interest. I thank Earl of Capital City Auto Electric for carrying on the tradition.

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